Her overall language proficiency remains that of a toddler.
Of all the components of a good night&39;s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. In dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. A century ago, Freud formulated this revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears; by the
late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just "mental noise" -- the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. Now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind&39;s emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is "off-line" . And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better. "It&39;s your dream, " says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of psychology at Chicago&39;s Medical Center, "If you don&39;t like it, change it. "
Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eye movement ) sleep --when most vivid dreams occur -- as it is when fully awake, says Dr. Eric Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system ( the "emotional brain" ) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex ( the center of intellect and reasoning ) is relatively quiet. "We wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those feelings can stay with us all day, " says Stanford sleep researcher Dr. William Dement.
The link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in Cartwright&39;s clinic. Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day. Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don&39;t always think about the emotional significance of the day&39;s events -until, it appears, we begin to dream.
And this process need not be left to the unconscious. Cartwright believes one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams. As soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. Visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. With much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep.
At the end of the day, there&39;s probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping or "we wake up in panic, " Cartwright says. Terrorism, economic uncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people&39;s anxiety. Those suffering from persistent nightmares should seek
help from a therapist. For the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad feelings. Sleep—or rather dream -- on it and you&39;ll feel better in the morning.
Researchers have come to believe that dreams__________ 查看材料
A.can be modified in their courses
B.are susceptible to emotional changes
C.reflect our innermost desires and fears
D.are a random outcome of neural repairs
The Differences between Men and Women
The differences between men and women clarify why they have different expectations about communication in marriage. For women, talk 51 intimacy. Marriage is an orgy ( 狂欢 ) of 52 : you can tell your feelings and thoughts, and still be loved. Women&39;s greatest fear is being pushed away. But men live in a hierarchical world, 53 talk maintains independence and statue. They are on 54 to protect themselves from being put down and pushed around.
This 55 the paradox of the talkative man who said of his silent wife, "She&39;s the talker. " In public settings, he feels challenged to 56 his intelligence and display his understanding. But at home, where he has 57 to prove and no one to defend against, he is free to remain 58 . For his wife, being home means she is free from the worry that something she says might 59 someone, or spark disagreement, or appear to be showing off ; at home she is 60 to talk. The communication 61 that endanger marriage can&39;t be fixed by mechanical engineering. They require a new conceptual framework about the 62 of talk in human relationships. Many of the psychological explanations may not be 63 , because they tend to blame either women ( for not being assertive enough ) 64 men ( for not being in touch with their feelings ) . A sociolinguistic approach in 65 male-female conversation is seen as cross-cultural communication allows us to understand the problem and forge solutions without blaming either party.
The Public Health System
One of the biggest changes since 1990 is the degree to which bioterrorism has become a public health priority.Although there had long been concern about vulnerability to biowarfare and bioterrorism the anthrax episode in the fall of 2001 made it clear that the concern is no longer theoretical.Until very recently, the important role of public health at the frontlines of bioterrorism preparedness was unrecognized.Although concern about emerging infections has helped stimulate funding for the chronically under-appreciated public health system, the threat of bioterrorism motivated the first real infusion of new money into public health in
Many of the capabilities needed to defend against bioterrorism are the same: as those needed to combat natural emerging infections.In both instance, the problem is an unexpected outbreak of infectious disease, of which the first indication is likely to be sick people in emergency rooms or clinics.Indeed, as with the anthrax attacks, the public health and medical responses may be under way before the true nature of the outbreak is recognized. Public health and the interface with the health care system are therefore key elements in any effective response to bioterrorism.
Whether the biggest threat is natural or engineered much remains to be done.Efforts to strengthen surveillance and response worldwide and to improve communication must be accelerated and sustained.Further,we have only scratched the surface in terms of understanding the ecology of infectious diseases and developing strategies for regulating microbial traffic.We need tools for better predictive epidemiologic modeling when a new infection first appears and for better analysis of the factors that transfer pathogens across species.One encouraging development is the program in the ecology of infections diseases that was started a few years ago be the National Science Foundation in cooperation with NIH.
SARS is a good yardstick of our progress during the past 13 years.The syndrome was unusual because novel infections that spread from person to person are relatively rare.Once cases were finally reported, the public health response was vigorous.WHO warned health care providers, researchers rapidly identified a candidate virus, and prototype diagnostic tests quickly became available.The vast reach of the Internet was instrumental in sharing formation and coordinating activities worldwide.Despite these advances, SARS had already spread to many countries.In fact had the disease been as transmissible as influenza, it would have invaded virtually every country in the world by the time the public health response had begun.So what SARS tells us is that although we have come long way since 1990, we still have a long way to go.
The main idea expressed in the first paragraph is that__________. 查看材料
A.the threat of bioterrorism is real rather than theoretical
B.the concern about bio-warfare and bioterrorism has been justified
C.the public health system plays an important role in fighting against bioterrorism
D.bioterrorism has to a considerable degree become a public health priority
The Sahara Desert
The Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world. It stretches across Africa from Senegal to Egypt. The Sahara Desert is an unfriendly environment. During the day it"s very hot， and at night it"s sometimes very cold. It is also difficult to find water in the Sahara.
In 2006， Kevin Lin， Ray Zahab， and Charlie Engle decided to do something very difficult.
They made the decision to run across the Sahara Desert 4，300 miles （6，920krn）. It seemed impossible to do， but they wanted to try. The three men liked to test themselves， and this would be a very big test.
On the morning of November 2， Kevin， Ray， and Charlie started their trip across the Sahara.
Every morning they began running at 5:00. At 11 a.m. they stopped and rested until 5 p.m. Then they ran again until 9:30 in the evening. Each day they ran about 40 miles （64 km）. Every day it was the same thing. They got up and ran. They listened to music on their iPods， and they ran and ran.
Kevin， Ray， and Charlie needed to eat a lot of food during their trip. Most people need about 2，000 calories of food each day. Kevin， Ray， and Charlie needed between 6，000 and 9，000 calories every day. That"s a lot of food! They also needed to drink a lot of water.
The three men had some problems on their trip， and many times they wanted to quit and go home. It was often very hot （140~F/60~C） during the day， and the heat made them sick. Their legs and feet hurt. Sometimes it was very windy， and they couldn"t see. One time they got lost. But they didn"t quit. After 111 days， Kevin， Ray; and Charlie successfully finished their trip across the Sahara Desert. They hugged each other and put their hands in the water of the Red Sea. Then they ran to a hotel to take a long shower.
It‘s not always hot in the Sahara Desert. 查看材料