In the case of Caesar Borgia, the author holds that
[A] Machiavelli has been objective.
[B] Machiavelli revealed his personality.
[C] Caesar Borgia was a deserved model.
[D] Machiavelli overvalued Caesar Borgia.
What is the text mainly about?
[A] The defect of US monetary system.
[ B] The causes of ever-worsening inflation in the US.
[ C] Prospects for the US economic situation.
[ D] A comprehensive settlement of inflation in the US.
Read the following text. Choose the best word or phrase for each numbered blank and mark A , B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET1.
In addition to the established energy sources such as gas ,coal ,oil and nuclear ,there are a num-ber of other sources that we ought to consider. Two of these are hydroelectric and tidal power. These two sources are (21) in that they are both renewable. (22) ,hydropower is more widely used than tidal.ln (23) ,a substantial amount of electricity is already produced in HEP (hydroelectric power)stations worldwide, (24) tidal stations are stillin the very early (25) of development. .
As far as geographical (26) is concerned ,HEP projects are to be found on lakes and rivers, whiletidal (27)are constructed only at river mouths where tidal (28) is great .Unfortunately these are (29) in number. At present HEP stations are found mainly in Norway ,Canada ,Sweden and Brazil ,whereas tidal plants are in (30) in France ,Russia and China.
As regards capital (31) ,both require very high..investment. On the other hand ,generating(32) are quite low in both cases .ln fact,a large scale HEP plant is capable of producing power more (33) than conventional sources ,such as coal ,oil and nuclear plants. Tidal power also com-pares (34) with nuclear and oil generated electricity, (35) the amount of money on production.
(36) HEP stations ,tidalconstructions have alonglife (37).Itis estimated thatthey can operate foroverl00 years. With respect to (38) 0f supply ,tidal stations (39) from HEP ones in that they often can only supply power (40). HEP stations ,however ,provide a constant supply of elec-tricity.
[ A] compatible
[ B ] parallel
[ C] similar
[ D] identical
Who's to blame? The trail of responsibility goes beyond poor maintenance of British railways, say industry critics. Stingy governments-both Labor and Tory-have cut down on investments in trains and rails.ln the mid-1990s a Conservative government pushed through the sale of the entire subsidy-guzzling rail network. Operating franchises were parceled out among private comparues and a separate firm,Railtrack, was awarded ownership of the tracks and stations. In the future, the theory ran back then, the private sector could pay for any improvements-with a little help from the state-and take the blame for any failings.
Today surveys show that travelers believe privatization is one of the reasons for the railways 's failures. They ask whether the pursuit of profits is compatible with guaranteeing safety. Worse, splitting the network between companies has made coordination nearly impossible. "The railway was tom apart at privatization and the structure that was put in place was. . . designed, if we are honest, to maximize the proceeds to the Treasury," said Railtrack boss Gerald Corbett before resigning last month in the wake of the Hatfield crash.
Generally, the contrasts with mainland Europe are stark. Over the past few decades the Germans, French and Italians have invested 50 percent more than the British in transportation infrastructure. As a result, a web of high-speed trains now crisscross the Continent, funded by governments willing to commit state funds to major capital projects. Spain is currently planning l,000 miles of new high- speed track.ln France superfast trains already shuttle between all major cities, often on dedicated lines. And in Britain? When the Eurostar trains that link Paris, London and Brussels emerge from the Channel Tunnel onto British soil and join the crowded local network, they must slow down from 186 mph to a maximum of 100 mph-and they usually have to go even slower.
For once, the government is listening. After all, commuters are voters, too. In a pre-vote spending spree, the govemment has committed itself to huge investment in transportation, as well as education and the public health service. Over the next 10 years, the railways should get an extra ￡60 billion, partly through higher subsidies to the private companies. As Blair ackoowledged last month, " Britain has been underinvested in and investment is central to Britain's future. " You don't have to tell the 3 million passengers who use the railways every day. Last week trains to Darlington were an hour late-and crawling at Locomotion No.l speeds.
51. In the first paragraph, the author tries to
[ A] trace the tragedy to its defective origin.
[ B] remind people of Britain's glonous past.
[ C] explain the failure of Britain's rail network.
[ D] call for impartiality in assessing the situation.
For centuries the most valuable of African resources for Europeans were the slaves ,but these could be obtained at coastal ports, without any need for going deep inland. Slavery had been an established institution in Africa. Prisoners of war had been enslaved, as were also debtors and individuals guilty of serious crimes. But these slaves usually were treated as part of the family. They had clearly defined rights, and their slave status was not necessarily inherited. Therefore it is commonly argued that Africa's traditional slavery was mild compared to the trans-Atlantic slave trade organized by the Europeans. This argument ,however ,can be carried too far .ln the most recent study of this subject, some scholars warned against the illusion that "cruel and dehumanizing enslavement was a monopoly of the West. Slavery in its extreme forms ,including the taking of life, was common to both Africa and the West. The fact that African slavery had different origins and consequences should not lead us to deny what it was - the exploitation and control of human beings. "Neither can it be denied that the wholesale shipment of Africans to the slave plantations of the Americas was made possible by the participation of African chiefs who rounded up their fellow Africans and sold them as a handsome profit to European ship captains waiting along the coasts.
Granting all this ,the fact remains that the trans-Atlantic slave trade conducted by the Europeans was entirely different in quantity and quality from the traditional type of slavery that had existed' within Africa. From the beginning the European variety was primarily an economic institution rather than social ,as it had been in Africa. Western slave traders and slave owners were acted on by purely economic considerations ,and were quite ready to work their slaves to death if it was more profitable to do so than to treat them more mercifully. This inhumanity was reinforced by racism when the Europeans became involved in the African slave trade on a large scale. Perhaps as a subconscious rationalization they gradually came to look down on Negroes as inherently inferior ,and therefore destined to serve their white masters. Rationalization also may have been involved in the Europeans' use of religion to justify the traffic in human beings. It was argued ,for instance ,that enslavement assured the conversion of the African evil-believing religions to the true faith as well as to civilization.
46.1n the first paragraph, the author argues that
[ A] the Europeans were innocent in the trade of African slaves.
[ B] slavery in Africa and in the West was the same in nature.
[ C] the view in the most recent studies of enslavement is baseless.
[D] slaves had been treated even more cruelly in the African tradition.