Although the insistence on balancing spending against tax revenues has contributed to the economy’s stagnation, unfortunately, the government does not seem likely to ___ this rigid policy.
B. persist in
Since it was committed to the idea of science as an international, politically neutral enterprise, the Royal Society of London refused to ___ members from enemy nations during world wars of the twentieth century.
阅读理解：Present-day philosophers usually envision their discipline as an endeavor that has been, since antiquity, distinct from and superior to any particular intellectual discipline such as theology or science.
The basis for this view, however, lies in a serious misinterpretation of the past, a projection of modern concerns onto past events.
The idea of an autonomous discipline called “philosophy,” distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as theology and science turns out, on close examination, to be of quite recent origin.
When, in the seventeenth century, Descartes and Hobbes rejected medieval philosophy, they did not think of themselves, as modern philosophers do, as proposing a new and better philosophy, but rather as furthering “the warfare between science and theology.”
They were fighting, albeit discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy and envisioned their work as contributing to the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in mathematics and physics.
This link between philosophical interests and scientific practice persisted until the nineteenth century, when decline in ecclesiastical power over scholarship and changes in the nature of science provoked the final separation of philosophy from both.
The demarcation of philosophy from science was facilitated by the development in the early nineteenth century of a new notion, that philosophy‘s core interest should be epistemology, the general explanation of what it means to know something.
Modern philosophers now trace that notion back at least to Descartes and Spinoza, but it was not explicitly articulated until the late eighteenth century, by Kant, and did not become built into the structure of academic institutions and the standard self-descriptions of philosophy professors until the late nineteenth century.
Without the idea of epistemology, the survival of philosophy in an age of modern science is hard to imagine.
Metaphysics, philosophy‘s traditional core—considered as the most general description of how the heavens and the earth are put together—had been rendered almost completely meaningless by the spectacular progress of physics.
Kant, however, by focusing philosophy on the problem of knowledge, managed to replace metaphysics with epistemology, and thus to transform. the notion of philosophy as “queen of sciences” into the new notion of philosophy as a separate, foundational discipline: philosophy became “primary” no longer in the sense of “highest” but in the sense of “underlying”.
1.Which of the following best expresses the author‘s main point?
A.Philosophy‘s overriding interest in basic human questions is a legacy primarily of the work of Kant.
B.Philosophy was deeply involved in the seventeenth-century warfare between science and religion.
C.The set of problems of primary importance to philosophers has remained relatively constant since antiquity.
D.The status of philosophy as an independent intellectual pursuit is a relatively recent development.
E.The role of philosophy in guiding intellectual speculation has gradually been usurped by science.
2.The author of the passage implies which of the following in discussing the development of philosophy during the nineteenth century?
(A) Nineteenth-century philosophy took science as its model for understanding the bases of knowledge.
(B) The role of academic institutions in shaping metaphysical philosophy grew enormously during the nineteenth century.
(C) Nineteenth-century philosophers carried out a program of investigation explicitly laid out by Descartes and Spinoza.
(D) Kant had an overwhelming impact on the direction of nineteenth-century philosophy.
(E) Nineteenth-century philosophy made major advances in understanding the nature of knowledge.
3.The author suggests that Descartes‘ support for the new science of the seventeenth century can be characterized as
(A) pragmatic and hypocritical
(B) cautious and inconsistent
(C) daring and opportunistic
(D) intense but fleeting
(E) strong but prudent
4.With which of the following statements concerning the writing of history would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?
(A) History should not emphasize the role played by ideas over the role played by individuals.
(B) History should not be distorted by attributing present-day consciousness to historical figures.
(C) History should not be focused primarily on those past events most relevant to the present.
(D) History should be concerned with describing those aspects of the past that differ most from those of the present.
(E) History should be examined for the lessons it can provide in understanding current problems.
阅读理解：Biologists have long maintained that two groups of pinnipeds, sea lions and walruses, are descended from a terrestrial bearlike animal, whereas the remaining group, seals, shares an ancestor with weasels.
But the recent discovery of detailed similarities in the skeletal structure of the flippers in all three groups undermines the attempt to explain away superficial resemblance as due to convergent evolution—the independent development of similarities between unrelated groups in response to similar environmental pressures.
Flippers may indeed be a necessary response to aquatic life; turtles, whales, and dugongs also have them.
But the common detailed design found among the pinnipeds probably indicates a common ancestor.
Moreover, walruses and seals drive themselves through the water with thrusts of their hind flippers, but sea lions use their front flippers.
If anatomical similarity in the flippers resulted from similar environmental pressures, as posited by the convergent-evolution theory, one would expect walruses and seals, but not seals and sea lions, to have similar flippers. (162 words)
1. The author implies that which of the following was part of the long-standing view concerning pinnipeds?
A Pinnipeds are all descended from a terrestrial bearlike animal.
B Pinnipeds share a common ancestor with turtles, whales, and dugongs
C Similarities among pinnipeds are due to their all having had to adapt to aquatic life.
2. The author implies which of the following about the fact that turtles, whales, and dugongs all have flippers?
A It can be explained by the hypothesis that turtles, whales, and dugongs are very closely related.
B It can be explained by the idea of convergent evolution.
C It suggests that turtles, whales, and dugongs evolved in separate parts of the world
D It undermines the view that turtles, whales, and dugongs are all descended from terrestrial ancestors.
E It is the primary difference between turtles, whales, and dugongs, on the one hand, and pinnipeds, on the other.
3. Select the sentence in the passage in which the author shows that the implication of the common view is contradicted by a new finding.
Although field studies have linked inbreeding to declines among song sparrow populations, some researchers argue that, in nature, inbreeding proves ___ as a factor when compared with crushing blows from weather changes.